Learn about automotive springs (springs, elastic moduli)

The elastic part of the suspension system of springs used. The springs can be metal or non-metal, such as:
- Metal springs: leaf spring, spring cylinders, torsion bar type springs
- Non-metallic springs: rubber springs, air springs



Elastic properties of the spring:
If the effect of a force (load) on an object made of materials such as rubber, it will create stress (strain) of the material. When no force is applied, the object will return to its original shape. We call it the elastic properties. The car's springs elastic principles used to reduce vibration from the road surface and affect the body in the car.
The steel springs use elasticity bending and twisting.

However, if the force on the spring is too large, exceeds the elastic limit, making it impossible to fully recover its original shape causing plastic deformation. This property is called plasticity.
Stiffness of the spring:
Some deformation of the spring depends on the force (load) acting on it. Value obtained by dividing the force values (w) for some deformation (a) is a constant. Constant (k) is called stiffness springs or "spring constant". Small spring stiffness is called "soft" spring stiffness is large, it is called "hard".
The oscillations of the spring:
When wheel stumbled on a higher scale, the car's springs compress quickly. Since each spring tend to stretch right back to its original length, releasing energy to compress springs tend to stretch beyond the original length. Then springs tend to reverse, back to the original length, and the shorter length contraction initially. This process is called oscillation of the spring, it repeatedly until springs back to the original length.


If you do not control the fluctuations of the spring, it not only makes the car run smoothly but can not affect the operational stability. To prevent this phenomenon need to use dampers
The spring type:
+ Tweezers leaves:


Tweezers are made of a curved spring steel band, called "leaf spring", and stacked in order from shortest to longest. Episode leaf springs are pressed together by a bolt or rivet in the middle, and to
Generally, the longer the better soft tweezers. Number of leaf springs, the springs as much as hard, withstand greater loads. However, hard spring will affect the smooth.
to be disproportion leaves, they are holders in a number of positions. The two longest first leaf (the leaf springs) are bent into a ring to assemble the chassis or other structures.
+ Characteristics of tweezers:
- Spring itself has enough rigidity to keep the car in place should not need to use the other link.
- Tweezers perform self-control functions ranging through friction between the spring leaves.
- Tweezers have sufficient strength to withstand heavy loads.
- Because of the friction between the spring leaves so hard springs absorb small vibrations from the road surface. So spring is often used for large vehicles, transporting heavy loads, should be more emphasis on durability.
- Because of the friction between the spring leaves so hard springs absorb small vibrations from the road surface. So spring is often used for large vehicles, transporting heavy loads, should be more emphasis on durability.
+ Deflection of the spring:
- The effect of deflection:
When the spring is bent, making the deflection on each palm leaf springs, and friction between the leaf springs appear to fluctuate quickly off of tweezers. This friction is called the friction between the spring leaves. It is one of the most important characteristics of tweezers. However, this also reduces friction smooth running of the car, because it makes the spring bending is reduced. So, spring is usually used for trucks.
When this rhythm up, sag springs keep the leaves together tightly, preventing soil, sand ... entered into between the leaf springs and abrasive.
- Measures to reduce friction between the spring leaves
Place the pads on the noise between the spring leaves, the leaves at the top, so they easily slide over each other. Each leaf spring ends are bevelled so they create a pressure suitable for contact with each other.
+ Side Tweezers
The truck and load up changes needed additional secondary tweezers. Tweezers tweezers mounted on the side. With small loads, only the main spring, but when the load exceeds a certain value, both primary and secondary springs are working.


+ Springs office:
The springs are made of special steel springs. When placed on a spring load, all the twisted steel springs shrink. Thus the energy of the external forces are accumulated, and reduced vibration.
+ Characteristics of springs office:
- The rate of energy absorption per unit volume is higher than leaf springs (springs).
- Can be made of soft springs.
- Since there is no friction between the leaves in the spring so as not to be able to control the range, so to use additional dampers.
- Because not withstand horizontal forces should not be linked to the structure of the wheel shaft (blow hung, horizontal bracing ...)
+ Non-linear springs
If the springs are made of a cylindrical steel rod with a diameter equal to the entire spring shrinks uniformly, the load rate. That is, if you use soft springs, it would not withstand heavy loads, even if they use stiffer springs car running smoothly with little load.


However, if you use a steel bar diameter will change, as illustrated in the following figure, the two ends of the spring stiffness will be lower than the middle. Thus, when the load is small, two hooks will shrink and absorb motion. On the other hand, the middle part of the springs stiff enough to withstand heavy loads.
The steps do not have springs, conical springs ... also have such an effect.
+ Torsion bar springs:
Torsion bar springs (torsion bars for short) is a spring steel helix elasticity. One end of the torsion bar is rigidly coupled to the frame or other structures of the body, and the other end is attached to the load torque department.
Torsion bar is also used to stabilize the bar.

+ Features:
- Thanks to the energy absorption rate per unit volume greater than any other spring suspension system can be lighter.
- Structure of simple suspension.
- As well as coil springs, torsion bars are not self-controlled oscillator, so have to use additional dampers.
+ Rubber springs:
The rubber springs absorb fluctuations through internal friction arises when an external force is distorted.


+ Features
- Can be made in any shape.
- They can not make the noise when
- They are not suitable for heavy loads.
+ Air springs:
Air springs use elasticity of air being compressed.
+ Features
- The springs are very soft when the car is not loaded, but can spring coefficient increases as the load increases due to increased pressure in the cylinder. This feature enables the car to run smoothly even when lightly loaded and at full load.
- The height of the vehicle can be kept constant even if the load changes, by adjusting the air pressure.
However, suspension air springs used should be equipped with adjustable air pressure and air compressor ... suspension will be complicated. Currently, air suspension electronic modulators, also used in some models.

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